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Fencing Dictionary

About this dictionary

Introduction

To date there is no multilingual dictionary of fencing terminology. Although Maestro Gaugler's booklet is a good start, it contains only French and Italian terminology, with translations to and explanations in English, and it is not too useful for quickly finding a translation. For example the term coupé is not present as a keyword.

Here is a dictionary concentrating on the translation of fencing terms in the languages English, Francais, Deutsch and Nederlands. Short explanations are given at least in English, but in some cases also in other languages.

This dictionary only contains contemporary fencing terminology. This means that a word like dragonne is not included. The rapier, let alone the case of rapiers, is not mentioned. Arbitrary exceptions are made for e.g. the sabre parry of septime.

Furthermore only terminology from sport fencing, or Olympic fencing is listed. This is not to deprecate historical fencing, re-enactment fencing, SCA-fencing, canne de combat, and all the other sports or activities that could claim some right on using the word fencing. Relevant terminology from those domains may well be added at some later time, but right now we have to draw the line somewhere, if only to get the job finished.

Parries are described according to the French numbering system. Nothing bad about the Italian system, but I was taught according to the French school. Since the English, the Dutch and many of the Germans are accustomed to the French parry system this seems a fair restriction.

The terminology has been put into categories, being:

  • attacks
  • blade actions
  • bout
  • footwork
  • hardware
  • miscellaneous (you always need that one)
  • parry

Of course the decision into which category some concept falls is often arbitrary, but it may be needed on some rare occasions, such as in the translation(s) of the French word flèche.

The reference dictionary has been sorted on category first. For referencing this may not be the easiest way to do it, but for web browsers using hyperlinks this is not relevant, and the dictionary is primarily intended to be used via a browser. When someone wants to read (part of) the reference dictionary, without really looking up the translation of some fencing term, it can be more convenient to have it sorted the way it is.

The dictionary is presented in two separate forms. The first one is the reference dictionary, containing all terms and all definitions in all languages. It is sorted on category first and on the unique keyword second. The keyword is rather arbitrary; usually it is either the English or the French word.

The second form is the sorted dictionary, containing only the terms in all languages, but not the definitions. There is a separate version for each of the languages.

Linguistic problems

Fencing terminology is a bit of a mess. Ask any two fencing masters to explain a certain fencing term to you and you may well get two different answers.

The main, although not the only, cause of this confusion stems from the fact that the styles of the original French and Italian schools were different. An excellent treatise that lifts some of the fog is Wort und Sinn, which I can highly recommend if you can get hold of a copy. That this work is in German is hardly surprising, since German fencing seems to have suffered (in a linguistic sense) most under a mixed French-Italian influence. The German word Bindung can be translated as either engagement or bind. Various fencing texts disagree as to the exact meaning of concepts like croisé or flanconnade, just to mention a few.

Ideally all questionable translations and definitions should be accompanied by references to well-respected fencing texts and explanations on how to read the translation. This approach would also cause this dictionary to stay unfinished for another couple of years. In most cases I have attempted to select the most appropriate translation, but that selection was directed by my background in the French system.

I have primarily made the choice for official terminology, using the various translations of the FIE Reglement. I have also given preferential treatment to purist terminology. The purist Dutch word for riposte is nasteek or nahouw, but hardly any Dutch fencer uses these words; some may even not know them. However, when I have the impression that some unofficial or non-purist word is used a lot I have included it.

To Do

Did you ever encounter a dictionary author? I am willing to bet he was old and grey, had started his dictionary in his teens, and had nearly finished it.

A dictionary is never finished. Only some publication deadline may force the author to make a snapshot ready for printing, but more work always remains to be done.

This dictionary is not a lot different. A lot of extra work can still be done. A list of enhancements, more or less in order of perceived priority, follows:

  • make the list of contemporary terminology more complete;
  • provide more definition texts in German, French and Dutch;
  • find out how to convince Xalan to use the proper sorting algorithm;
  • add more languages, with Italian as the prime candidate;
  • do more work on the confusion;
  • include more ancient terminology.

This may take many years, but here you have a snapshot of the current state of affairs. At my last count the dictionary contained about 150 entries. Let's hope that this number has doubled in a year's time and that at least one more language has been added.

Further reading

  1. FIE, Reglement pour les epreuves de la Federation International d'Escrime, downloaded from http://www.fie.ch, spring 2001.
  2. Deutsche Übersetzung des F.I.E. Reglements, downloaded from http://www.fechten.org, spring 2001.
  3. FENCING RULES, 2000 Edition, United States Fencing Association, Inc.; Bill Oliver, Editor; Boulder, Colorado, January, 2000, downloaded from http://www.usfa.org.
  4. WEDSTRIJDREGLEMENT van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Algemene Schermbond, Editie november 1997 aangevuld met de wijzigingen van Kaapstad (1997), Neuchâtel (1998) en Lausanne (1999), downloaded from http://www.knas.nl, spring 2001.
  5. A Dictionary of Universally Used Fencing Terminology , William M. Gaugler, Laureate Press, Bangor, Maine, 1997; ISBN 1-884528-00-7.
  6. Wort und Sinn, Günther Schmid, ADFD, Waiblingen, 1984.
  7. Fechttraining, Berndt Barth / Emil Beck, Meyer und Meyer Verlag, Aachen, 2000; ISBN 3-89124-584-X.

Final remarks

Anyone wanting to contribute should request the fencing dictionary in XML, the XSL stylesheets that produce the HTML files, and a Bourne shell script that calls the Xalan processor to perform the transformations with the correct parameters.

Please do not mirror these HTML files on the Web. Of course you are encouraged to put a link to this dictionary on your website dedicated to fencing.

If you want to play with this material, have fun. If you are a Windows user you may want to use Instant Saxon rather than Xalan. It is easier to install and does the job just as well. The way to call it is slightly different from what Xalan wants, but it comes with enough documentation to get you up and running.

Xalan can be obtained from http://xml.apache.org/xalan/. It is the processor I prefer to use under Linux.

Michael Kay's command line Saxon program can be found on sourceforge. I have used Instant Saxon a little, and it would be my first choice on the Windows platform, but for serious work I prefer Linux, so my personal experience with Saxon is limited.

A dictionary of contemporary fencing terminology in four languages

arrest category: attacks
en: arrest see stop-hit.
de: Vorhieb sehe Arret.
nl: voorsteek of voorhouw zie ophoudsteek.
attack_on_prep category: attacks
en: attack on preparation attack made on the opponent's preparatory movements, such as advancing, engaging or binding.
fr: attaque sur la préparation
de: Angriff auf Vorbereitung
nl: aanval op de voorbereiding
bingo category: attacks
de: Bingo sehe Wurfstoß. Nicht jeder liebt dieses Wort.
compound_attack category: attacks
en: compound attack offensive action consisting of two or more blade movements. The first movements are feints, although the Italian school also includes actions on the blade and renewals.
fr: attaque composé
de: Zusammengesetzte Angriff
nl: samengestelde aanval
countertime category: attacks
en: counter-time the action of drawing the opponent's stop-hit or other counteroffensive action, parrying it and riposting from that parry. Every action made by the attacker against a stop hit made by the opponent.
fr: contre-temps
de: Kontrotempo
nl: contre-temps
doubler category: attacks
en: doublé attack with feint by disengagement to deceive a circular parry.
fr: doublé ou doublement
de: Kreisfinte
nl: doublé
false_attack category: attacks
en: false attack an incompletely developed attack, either intended to probe the opponents plans and preferences, or to set him up for an unexpected renewal of the attack.
fr: faux attaque
de: Falscher Angriff?
nl: faux attaque
feint category: attacks
en: feint a simulated thrust or menace intended to draw the opponent's parry, in order to touch him in another line.
fr: feinte
de: Finte
nl: schijn, schijnsteek, schijnhouw
flanconade category: attacks
en: flanconade A rather unclear terminology. The flanconade (or flanconnade) is definitely a glide to the flank (outside low line), but in other details the description are conflicting. The Italian school distinguishes three types: the flanconade in 4th, the internal flanconade and the flanconade in 2nd. The flanconade in 4th or external flanconade consists of a croisé from engagement in 4th to 7th, followed by a glide. Some older descriptions (Angelo, La Boussiére) start with an incomplete bind from 4th to 8th and appear to rely on the left arm to deflect the opponent's blade.
fr: flanconade (attaque avec croisé)
de: Flankonade
nl: flanconade
flick category: attacks
en: flick a kind of coupé in which the compliance of the blade is used to bend the tip around a parry, either by contact with the parry or by suddenly stopping the whip-like motion with the wrist. Some fencing teachers would like it banned.
fr: coup fouetté
de: Wurfstoß (Bingo) Ähnlich dem Coupé, jedoch bei Abwesenheit der gegnerische Klinge. Die Spitze der Waffe wird durch die Wurfbewegung so beschleunigt, dass sie entweder über die gegnerische Klinge oder durch stoppen im Handgelenk auf die Trefffläche schwappt.
nl: zwiepsteek
stop-hit category: attacks
en: stop-hit or arrest a counterattack intended to interrupt completion of a compound attack, "stealing the tempo".
fr: arrêt
de: Arret oder Vorhieb
nl: ophoudsteek, voorsteek of voorhouw
fencing category: basic
en: fencing the science and art of handling the sword
fr: escrime
de: Fechten
nl: schermen
weapon category: basic
en: weapon
fr: arme
de: Waffe
nl: wapen
banderolle category: blade actions
en: banderolle cut Diagonal cut with edge or false edge or even (modern) with the "flat" of the point. The point describes a kind of ellipse reminiscent of a circular tierce.
fr: coup banderolle
de: Durchgezogene Bauchhieb
nl: coup banderolle (sjerphouw?)
battement category: blade actions
en: beat
fr: battement
de: Klingenschlag oder Battuta
nl: slag-ijzer of slag-wapen
battuta category: blade actions
de: Battuta sehe Klingenschlag.
bind category: blade actions
en: bind the action of carrying the opponent's blade from one engagement to one diagonally opposed, e.g. from 4th to 2nd or 8th.
fr: liement
de: Transport oder Übertragung
nl: binding, bindsteek
bindung category: blade actions
de: Bindung
circular_beat category: blade actions
en: circular beat
fr: battement en changeant de linie
de: Kreisschlag oder Kreisbattuta
nl: kringslag
croise category: blade actions
en: croisé the action that carries the opponents blade from high to low line, keeping it on the same side.
fr: croisé
de: Croisé
nl: croisé
cut category: blade actions
en: cut
fr: coup de taille, coup de tranchant
de: Hieb
nl: houw
cut_head category: blade actions
en: cut to the head
fr: coup de tête
de: Kopfhieb
nl: houw-kop
cutover category: blade actions
en: cutover the action of changing the line by passing the blade over the point of the opposing weapon.
fr: coupé
de: Coupé
nl: coupé
derobement category: blade actions
en: disengagement in time the evasion of the opponent's attempt to take the blade with a bind or beat.
fr: dérobement
de: Kavation ins Tempo
nl: dérobement
disengagement category: blade actions
en: disengagement a (small) semicircular movement of the point which carries the blade to a neighbouring line of the one it leaves.
fr: dégagement
de: Umgehung oder Kavation
nl: dégagement of (onvolledig) "onderdoor"
engagement category: blade actions
en: engagement the situation where the two blades are in contact.
fr: engagement
de: Klingenberührung oder auch Bindung Das Wort 'engagement' wird meistens benutzt für die Lage der Klingenberührung, und 'Bindung' für den Beginn eines Filos, aber man hört auch: "fangen wir an in Sixtbindung".
nl: aansluiting
enveloppement category: blade actions
en: envelopment the action of taking the opponent's blade (strong against weak) and performing two successive binds in one motion, thus returning to the original line of engagement. Usually the action ends in a thrust.
fr: enveloppement
de: Kreistransport
nl: dubbele binding
expulsion category: blade actions
en: expulsion see grazing beat.
filostoss category: blade actions
de: Filostoß sehe Gleitstoß.
froissement category: blade actions
en: grazing beat or expulsion powerful sliding or grazing beat on the blade.
fr: froissement
de: Gleitschlag
nl: strijkslag
glide category: blade actions
en: glide a thrust which glides along the adverse blade, keeping it in opposition.
fr: coulé
de: Gleitstoß oder Filostoß
nl: glijsteek
kavation category: blade actions
de: Kavation
reverse_cut category: blade actions
en: reverse cut a cut delivered with the reverse edge of the blade.
fr: coup de contre-taille
de: Rückschneidehieb
nl: houw met ruggescherp
thrust category: blade actions
en: thrust
fr: coup de point
de: Stoß
nl: steek
uebertragung category: blade actions
de: Übertragung sehe Transport.
allez category: bout
en: fence!
fr: allez!
de: Los!
nl: trekt!
analysis category: bout
en: analysis As soon as the bout has stopped, the Referee briefly analyzes the actions that compose the final phrase d'armes. After reaching his decision regarding the materiality of a touch, the Referee, by applying the rules, decides to which fencer a touch is to be awarded, whether both are touched (épée) or if there is no valid touch.
fr: analyse Dès l'arrêt du combat, l'arbitre analyse brièvement les actions composant la dernière phrase d'armes. Après le constat sur la matérialité de la touche l'arbitre décide, par application des règles, quel tireur est touché, s'ils doivent l'être tous les deux (pour l'épée) ou si aucune touche n'est retenue.
de: Analyse
nl: analyse
annulment category: bout
en: annulment
fr: annulation
de: Annullierung
nl: annulering
antwortangriff category: bout
de: Antwortangriff sehe Riposte.
assaut category: bout
en: assault A friendly combat between two fencers is called an assault.
fr: assaut Le combat courtois entre deux escrimeurs (ou tireurs) est un "assaut".
de: Übungsgefecht Der formgerechte Kampf zwischen zwei Fechterinnen oder Fechtern heißt "assaut" (Übungsgefecht).
nl: assaut Het hoffelijke gevecht tussen twee schermers wordt een "assaut" genoemd.
attack category: bout
en: attack The attack is the initial offensive action made by extending the arm and continuously threatening the opponent's target, preceding the launching of the lunge or flèche.
fr: attaque L'attaque est l'action offensive initiale exécutée en allongeant le bras et menaçant continuellement la surface valable de l'adversaire, précédant le déclenchement de la fente ou de la flèche.
de: Angriff Der Angriff ist die vor einer gegnerischen Aktion beginnende Offensivaktion, die ausgeführt wird, indem man vor Beginn des Ausfalls oder des Sturzangriffs den Arm streckt und die gültige Trefffläche des Gegners ununterbrochen bedroht.
nl: aanval De aanval is de aanvallende handeling die begint met het uitstrekken van de gewapende arm waarbij het geldig trefvlak van de tegenstander voortdurend wordt bedreigd, dit gaat vooraf aan het doorzetten van de aanval met de kling of met een flèche.
black_card category: bout
en: black card exclusion, from the competition or the whole tournament as applicable (for a fencer), or expulsion from the competition venue (any person disturbing the order of the competition), demonstrated by a Black Card by which the Referee identifies the fencer or person at fault.
fr: carton noir l'exclusion de l'épreuve ou du tournoi selon le cas (tireur), ou l'expulsion du lieu de la compétition (toute personne troublant l'ordre), manifestée par un CARTON NOIR avec lequel l'arbitre désigne le fautif.
de: Schwartze Karte Ausschluß vom Wettbewerb oder vom Turnier, je nach Art des Verstoßes (Fechter), oder Verweisung vom Ort des Wettbewerbs (jede die Ordnung störende Person), angezeigt durch eine SCHWARZE KARTE, die der Kampfleiter dem Schuldigen vorhält.
nl: zwarte kaart Uitsluiting van de wedstrijd of van het toernooi al naar gelang het geval (schermer) of verwijdering van het terrein van de wedstrijd (iedereen die de goede orde verstoort) aangegeven door een zwarte kaart waarmee de jurypresident de overtreder aanwijst.
bout category: bout
en: bout When the score of an assault is kept to determine a result it is called a bout.
fr: match lorsque l'on tient compte du résultat d'un combat (compétition) on l'appelle "match".
de: Gefecht werden die Treffer gezählt, so heißt ein Assaut "Gefecht" (Turnier- oder Rundengefecht).
nl: partij als het resultaat van een assaut meetelt (voor een wedstrijd) heet het een "partij".
championship category: bout
en: championship A championship is the name given to a competition held to determine the best fencer or the best team at each weapon for a federation, for a specific region or for the world and for a specific period of time.
fr: championnat Nom donné à une épreuve destinée à désigner le meilleur tireur ou la meilleure équipe dans chaque arme, pour une fédération, une région, le monde et pour une durée déterminée.
de: Meisterschaft Meisterschaft heißt ein Wettbewerb, der den Zweck hat, in einer bestimmten Waffe den besten Fechter oder die beste Mannschaft für einen bestimmten Verband, für ein bestimmtes Gebiet und für einen bestimmten Zeitraum zu ermitteln.
nl: kampioenschap
competition category: bout
en: competition A competition is the aggregate of the bouts (individual competitions) or of the matches (team competitions) required to determine the winner of the event.
fr: épreuve C'est l'ensemble des matches (épreuves individuelles) ou des rencontres (épreuves par équipes) nécessaires pour désigner le vainqueur de la compétition.
de: Wettbewerb Ein Wettbewerb ist die Gesamtheit aller für die Ermittlung des Siegers der Fechtveranstaltung erforderlichen Gefechte (bei Einzelwettbewerben) oder Mannschaftskämpfe (Mannschaftswettbewerbe).
nl: wedstrijd
counter-riposte category: bout
en: counter-riposte or counterparry riposte The riposte given after the (successful) parry of a riposte.
fr: contre-riposte La contre-riposte est l'action offensive du tireur qui a paré la riposte.
de: Konterriposte Die Konterriposte ist die Offensivaktion des Fechters, der die Riposte pariert hat.
nl: contrariposte
counter_attack category: bout
en: counter-attack offensive or offensive­defensive action made during the offensive action of the opponent.
fr: contre-attaque action offensive ou défensive-offensive exécutée pendant l'offensive adverse
de: Gegenangriff offensive oder defensiv-offensive Aktion, die während des gegnerischen Angriffs durchgeführt wird.
nl: tegenaanval
directeur category: bout
fr: directeur de combat mot archaïque pour arbitre.
director category: bout
en: director Obsolete term for referee.
fencing_time category: bout
en: time, fencing time Fencing time is the time required to perform one simple fencing action.
fr: temps d'escrime Le temps d'escrime est la durée d'exécution d'une action simple.
de: Fechttempo Das Fechttempo ist die Zeitdauer für die Ausführung einer einfachen Aktion.
nl: schermtempo Het schermtempo is de tijdsduur van het uitvoeren van een enkelvoudige handeling.
gamepoint category: bout
en: point to win a game, collect 5 or 15 of these...
fr: pointe
de: Punkt
nl: punt
halt category: bout
en: halt!
fr: halte!
de: Halt!
nl: halt!
hoofdsecondant category: bout
nl: hoofdsecondant verouderde term voor jurypresident.
injury category: bout
en: injury
fr: traumatisme
de: Verletzung
nl: blessure
invalid category: bout
en: invalid
fr: non valable
de: Ungültig
nl: ongeldig
judge category: bout
en: judge The Referee fulfils his or her functions with the aid of an apparatus for the automatic registering of touches; he or she may also be assisted by two judges watching for the use of the unarmed hand or arm, substitution of the valid target, touches scored on the floor at épée, reversal of the line of the shoulders in foil, leaving the strip to the side or the rear or any other offence defined in the Rules. The judges are obligatory for all individual competition finals (whether of 4 or 8 fencers) and for the final (2 teams) of team events. The judges are placed on each side of the Referee, on either side of the strip; they watch all aspects of the entire bout. The judges must change ends halfway through each bout or after each period so as not to watch the same fencer the whole time.
fr: assesseur
de: Seitenrichter Der Kampfleiter trifft seine Entscheidungen mit der Assistenz eines automatischen Trefferanzeigegerätes und von Fall zu Fall mit der Hilfe von zwei Seitenrichtern, die den Gebrauch des unbewaffneten Armes oder der unbewaffneten Hand, das Verdecken oder Ersetzen der gültigen Trefffläche überwachen, im Degen von Treffern, die auf dem Boden gesetzt wurden, im Florett das Verdrehen der Linie zwischen den Schultern sowie das Verlassen der Bahn seitlich oder nach hinten oder jeden anderen Verstoß, der im Reglement beschrieben ist. Dies ist obligatorisch für alle Einzelfinalkämpfe (4 oder 8) und das Finale bei Mannschaftskämpfen (2). Die Assistenten werden auf beiden Seiten des Kampfleiters und beiderseits der Bahn aufgestellt und verfolgen das Gefecht in seiner Gesamtheit. Die Assistenten müssen jeweils nach der Hälfte des Gefechtes oder nach jedem Durchgang die Seiten wechseln, damit sie nicht immer den gleichen Fechter zu beobachten haben .
nl: assessor of jurylid
nasteek category: bout
nl: riposte zie nasteek.
obmann category: bout
de: Obmann altmodisch für Kampfleiter.
onguard category: bout
en: on guard! a command, given by the referee, ordering the fencers on guard
fr: en garde!
de: Stellung!
nl: stelling!
parry category: bout
en: parry The parry is the defensive action made with the weapon to prevent an offensive action arriving. In this dictionary the names (numbers) of the parries are given according to the French system.
fr: parade La parade est l'action défensive faite avec l'arme pour empêcher une action offensive de toucher.
de: Parade Eine Parade ist die Defensivaktion, die mit der Waffe ausgeführt wird, um einen Angriffstreffer zu verhindern.
nl: wering De parade is de verdedigende handeling met het wapen om een treffer, resulterend uit een aanvallende handeling te verhinderen.
priority category: bout
en: priority sometimes called "right of way".
fr: priorité
de: Treffervorrecht auch "Vorfahrt" oder "Angriffsvorrecht".
nl: recht van aanval of voorrang
ready category: bout
en: ready?
fr: êtes vous près (prêtes)?
de: Fertig?
nl: klaar?
red_card category: bout
en: red card a penalty touch, demonstrated by a Red Card with which the Referee identifies the fencer at fault. A touch is added to the score of the opponent and may, if the last touch is at stake, lead to the loss of the bout. Furthermore, a Red Card can only be followed by another Red Card or by a Black Card, depending on the nature of the second offence.
fr: carton rouge la touche de pénalisation, manifestée par un CARTON ROUGE avec lequel l'arbitre désigne le tireur fautif. Une touche est ajoutée au score de son adversaire et entraîne, s'il s'agit de la dernière touche, la perte du match. De plus, tout CARTON ROUGE ne peut être suivi que d'un autre CARTON ROUGE ou d'un CARTON NOIR selon la nature de la nouvelle faute.
de: Rote Karte Straftreffer, angezeigt durch eine ROTE KARTE, die der Kampfleiter dem schuldigen Fechter vorhält. Dies bedeutet, daß dem Trefferstand des Gegners ein Treffer hinzugefügt wird. Falls dies der letzte Treffer war, ist damit das Gefecht verloren. Hat ein Fechter im Verlauf eines Gefechtes bereits eine ROTE KARTE erhalten, so ist die Strafe bei weiteren Verstößen entweder eine ROTE oder eine SCHWARZE KARTE, je nach Art des weiteren Verstoßes.
nl: rode kaart straftreffer, aangegeven door een rode kaart waarmee de jurypresident de schermer in overtreding aanwijst. Een treffer wordt bijgeteld bij de score van zijn tegenstander en als het hierbij om de laatste treffer gaat, houdt dit in verlies van de partij. Bovendien kan een rode kaart alleen maar worden gevolgd door een andere rode kaart of door een zwarte kaart al naar gelang de zwaarte van de volgende overtreding
redoublement category: bout
en: redoublement A new action, either simple or compound, made against an opponent who has parried without riposting or who has merely avoided the first action by retreating or displacing the target.
fr: redoublement Nouvelle action, simple ou composée, sur un adversaire qui a paré sans riposter, ou qui a simplement évité la première action par une retraite ou esquive.
de: Wiederholung (redoublement) neue einfache oder zusammengesetzte Aktion gegen einen Gegner, der pariert hat, aber nicht ripostiert, oder der den ersten Angriff lediglich durch Zurückweichen oder Ausweichen unwirksam gemacht hat.
nl: hervatting, redoublement een nieuwe handeling, enkelvoudig of samengesteld, op een tegenstander die heeft geweerd zonder te riposteren of die eenvoudig de eerdere handeling heeft ontweken door zich terug te trekken of door een ontwijking.
referee category: bout
en: referee The person directing a bout. See FIE Ch 6.
fr: arbitre
de: Kampfleiter oder Obmann
nl: jurypresident of hoofdsecondant
remise category: bout
en: remise a simple and immediate offensive action which follows the original attack, without withdrawing the arm, after the opponent has parried or retreated, when the latter has either broken contact with the blade without riposting or has made a riposte which is delayed, indirect or compound.
fr: remise action offensive simple immédiate qui suit une première action, sans retrait de bras, après une parade ou une retraite de l'adversaire, soit que celui-ci ait abandonné le fer sans riposter, soit qu'il riposte tardivement, ou indirectement ou en composant.
de: Fortsetzung, Rimesse, Remise einfache unverzögerte Offensivaktion, die einer ersten Offensivaktion folgt, ohne daß der Arm zurückgezogen wird, nach einer Klingen- oder Körperparade des Gegners, wenn dieser das Eisen losläßt, ohne zu ripostieren, oder wenn er nur zögernd oder indirekt oder zusammengesetzt ripostiert.
nl: remise enkelvoudige aanvallende handeling, onmiddellijk volgend op een eerdere handeling zonder dat de arm wordt teruggetrokken na een parade of terugtrekking van de tegenstander hetzij dat deze het ijzer loslaat zonder riposte hetzij dat hij met vertraging riposteert, indirect of samengesteld.
reprise category: bout
en: reprise of the attack a new attack executed immediately after a return to the on-guard position.
fr: reprise d'attaque nouvelle attaque exécutée immédiatement après retour en garde.
de: Wiederaufnahme des Angriffs erneuter Angriff, der unmittelbar nach Rückgang in die Fechtstellung durchgeführt wird.
nl: hervatting, reprise een nieuwe aanval die wordt uitgevoerd onmiddellijk nadat de stelling opnieuw is ingenomen.
rimesse category: bout
de: Rimesse sehe Fortsetzung
riposte category: bout
en: riposte The riposte is the offensive action made by the fencer who has parried the attack.
fr: riposte La riposte est l'action offensive du tireur qui a paré l'attaque.
de: Riposte oder Antwortangriff Die Riposte ist die Offensivaktion des Fechters, der den Angriff pariert hat.
nl: nasteek of nahouw De riposte is de aanvallende handeling van de schermer die de aanval heeft geweerd.
riposte_direct category: bout
en: direct riposte Simple direct riposte: a riposte which touches the opponent without leaving the line in which the parry was made. Riposte along the blade: a riposte which touches the opponent by grazing along the blade after the parry.
fr: riposte directe Riposte droite: riposte qui touche l'adversaire sans avoir quitté la ligne où la parade a été faite. Riposte sur le fer: riposte qui touche l'adversaire en glissant sur le fer après la parade.
de: Direkte Riposte Gerade Riposte: Sie trifft den Gegner, ohne die Linie zu verlassen, in der die Parade genommen wurde. Riposte am Eisen: Sie trifft den Gegner, ohne nach der Parade den Kontakt mit der gegnerischen Klinge aufzugeben.
nl: directe riposte
row category: bout
en: right of way see priority.
de: Vorfahrt sehe Treffervorrecht.
simultaneous category: bout
en: simultaneous The simulateous action due to simultaneous conception and execution of an attack by both fencers; in this case the touches exchanged are annulled for both fencers even if one of them has been touched (foil) off the target.
fr: action simultanée l'action simultanée est due a la conception et à l'action simultanée d'attaque des deux tireurs; dans ce cas, les coups donnés sont annulés pour les deux tireurs même si l'un d'eux a touché une surface non valable.
de: Gleichzeitige Aktion Die Gleichzeitige Aktion ist das Ergebnis gleichzeitiger Planung und Durchführung eines Angriffes von beiden Seiten. In diesem Fall werden beide Treffer annulliert, auch wenn einer davon auf ungültiger Trefffläche aufkam.
nl: gelijktijdige actie
target category: bout
en: target area
fr: surface (valable)
de: Trefffläche
nl: trefvlak
touch category: bout
en: touch
fr: touche
de: Treffer
nl: treffer
valid category: bout
en: valid
fr: valable
de: Gültig
nl: geldig
yellow_card category: bout
en: yellow card a warning, indicated by a Yellow Card with which the Referee identifies the fencer at fault. The fencer then knows that any further offence on his part will result in a penalty touch.
fr: carton jaune l'avertissement, manifesté par un CARTON JAUNE avec lequel l'arbitre désigne le tireur fautif. Le tireur sait alors que toute nouvelle faute de sa part entraînera une touche de pénalisation.
de: Gelbe Karte Verwarnung, angezeigt durch eine GELBE KARTE, die der Kampfleiter dem schuldigen Fechter vorhält. Der Fechter weiß dann, daß jeder weitere Verstoß, den er begeht, einen Straftreffer zur Folge hat.
nl: gele kaart waarschuwing, aangegeven door een gele kaart waarmee de jurypresident de schermer in overtreding aanwijst. De schermer weet dus dat iedere volgende overtreding van hem een straftreffer tengevolge heeft.
advance category: footwork
en: advance
fr: marche
de: Schritt vorwärts
nl: pas voorwaarts
appel category: footwork
en: appel a stamp with the front foot, to confuse the opponent or to ascertain proper balance.
fr: appel
de: Appel
nl: appel
balestra category: footwork
en: jump-lunge attacking action also known as the italian term balestra
fr: bonde-fente
de: Sprung vor-Ausfall
nl: sprong voorwaarts-uitval
fleche category: footwork
en: fleche or running attack a running attack with a temporary loss of equilibrium by a forward displacement of the center of gravity. The French word 'flèche' means arrow.
fr: flèche
de: Sturzangriff eine startähnliche Vorwärtsbewegung mit kurzzeitigem Verlust des Gleichgewichts und kräftigem Abstoß beider Beine. Nicht jeder liebt das puristische Wort "Sturzangriff" und bevorzugt 'flèche' (Pfeil).
nl: flèche
glijpas category: footwork
en: ?
fr: ?
de: Stoppschritt
nl: glijpas
jump category: footwork
en: jump
fr: bonde
de: Sprung
nl: sprong
lunge category: footwork
en: lunge
fr: fente (ou botte)
de: Ausfall
nl: uitval
patinando category: footwork
en: advance-lunge attacking action also known as the italian term patinando
fr: marche-fente
de: Schritt vor-Ausfall
nl: pas voorwaarts-uitval
retreat category: footwork
en: retreat
fr: retraite
de: Schritt rückwärts
nl: pas achterwaarts
running_attack category: footwork
en: running attack see flèche.
bend_in_blade category: hardware
en: bend or curvature (of the blade)
fr: flèche (de la lame)
de: Durchbiegung (der Klinge)
nl: bocht (in de kling)
bib category: hardware
en: bib
fr: bavette
de: Maskenlatz
nl: flap
blade category: hardware
en: blade
fr: lame
de: Klinge
nl: kling
bodycord category: hardware
en: bodycord
fr: fil de corps
de: Körperkabel
nl: lichaamssnoer
button category: hardware
en: button
fr: bouton
de: Spitze
nl: punt
centerline category: hardware
en: center line one center line must be drawn as a broken line across the whole width of the strip.
fr: ligne médiane
de: Mittellinie
nl: middellijn
clothing category: hardware
en: clothing
fr: habillement
de: Bekleidung
nl: kleding
cutting_weapon category: hardware
en: cutting weapon
fr: arme de taille
de: Hiebwaffe
nl: houwwapen
edge category: hardware
en: edge
fr: taille
de: Schneide
nl: scherp
enrouleur category: hardware
en: spool
fr: enrouleur
de: Rolle
nl: enrouleur
epee category: hardware
en: épée
fr: épée
de: Degen
nl: degen
false-edge category: hardware
en: false edge
fr: contre-taille
de: Rückschneide
nl: ruggescherp
foible category: hardware
en: foible the foible of the blade is the two-thirds furthest from the guard.
fr: faible
de: Schwäche (Klingenschwäche)
nl: zwak
foil category: hardware
en: foil
fr: fleuret
de: Florett
nl: floret
forte category: hardware
en: forte the forte of the blade is the one-third nearest the guard.
fr: fort
de: Stärke (Klingenstärke)
nl: sterk
gauntlet category: hardware
en: gauntlet
fr: manchette
de: Stulpe
nl: manchet
glove category: hardware
en: glove
fr: gant
de: Handschuh
nl: handschoen
grip category: hardware
en: grip
fr: poignée
de: Griff
nl: greep
groove category: hardware
en: groove
fr: rainure
de: Rille, Klingenrille
nl: groef
guard category: hardware
en: guard
fr: coquille
de: Glocke
nl: kom
handle category: hardware
en: handle
fr: fusée
de: Heft
nl: handgreep
jacket category: hardware
en: jacket
fr: veste
de: Fechtjacke
nl: schermvest
knickers category: hardware
en: knickers
fr: pantalon
de: Hose
nl: broek
locking_nut category: hardware
en: locking nut
fr: écrou de serrage
de: Spannmutter
nl: moer
mask category: hardware
en: mask
fr: masque
de: Maske
nl: masker
on_guard_line category: hardware
en: on-guard line at 2 meters on each side of the center line.
fr: ligne de mise en garde
de: Startlinie
nl: stellingslijn
pommel category: hardware
en: pommel
fr: pommeau
de: Knauf
nl: knop
rear_line category: hardware
en: line at the rear limit at a distance of 7 meters from the center line.
fr: ligne de limite arrière
de: Hintere Grenzlinie
nl: achterlijn
sabre category: hardware
en: sabre
fr: sabre
de: Säbel
nl: sabel
scoring_apparatus category: hardware
en: scoring apparatus see electrical recording apparatus.
de: Meldegerät sehe Elektromelder.
scoring_box category: hardware
en: electrical recording apparatus
fr: appareil électrique
de: Elektromelder
nl: apparaat
socket category: hardware
en: socket
fr: prise de courant
de: Stecker
nl: contrasteker
socks category: hardware
en: socks
fr: chaussettes
de: Strümpfe
nl: kousen
strip category: hardware
en: strip That portion of the field of play which is used for fencing is called the strip.
fr: piste La partie du terrain destinée au combat s'appelle la piste.
de: Fechtbahn oder Bahn Der für den Kampf bestimmte Teil des Fechtbodens heißt Fechtbahn.
nl: loper
tang category: hardware
en: tang
fr: soie
de: Angel
nl: angel
tenue category: hardware
en: clothing
fr: tenue
de: Anzug
nl: kleding
thrusting_weapon category: hardware
en: thrusting weapon
fr: arme d'estoc
de: Stoßwaffe
nl: steekwapen
corps_a_corps category: misc
en: corps à corps Corps à corps is said to exist when the two competitors are in physical contact; when this occurs the Referee must stop the bout.
fr: corps à corps Le corps à corps existe lorsque les deux adversaires sont en contact; dans ce cas, le combat est arrêté par l'arbitre
de: Körper an Körper Körper an Körper liegt vor, wenn die beiden Fechter Körperkontakt haben. In diesem Fall wird der Kampf durch den Kampfleiter unterbrochen.
nl: corps à corps
in_fighting category: misc
en: in-fighting or close quarters The fight at close quarters, usually indicating a distance of less than a blade's length between the fencers. For the thrusting weapons the length of the blade becomes an encumbrance, so usually the hand is held very high or very low, allowing near-vertical thrusts.
fr: combat rapproché
de: Nahkampf
nl: gevecht van nabij
lateral_boundaries category: misc
en: lateral boundaries
fr: limite latérale
de: Seitliche Begrenzung
nl: zijgrens
maitre category: misc
en: master, maestro, fencing master
fr: maitre d'escrime
de: Fechtmeister
nl: schermleraar
measure category: misc
en: measure or distance The distance between the fencers. German terminology distinguishes near, middle and wide distance. In French terminology the word is often used to indicate "critical" measure: lunging distance.
fr: mesure ou distance
de: Mensur oder Abstand
nl: afstand
ausweichbewegung category: parry
de: Ausweichbewegung sehe Körperparade.
beat-parry category: parry
en: beat parry Parry executed with a crisp beat against the incoming blade, thus deflecting it.
fr: tac, parade du ~
de: Schlagparade
nl: slagwering
blocking_parry category: parry
en: blocking parry see opposing parry.
ceding_parry category: parry
en: ceding or yielding parry Parry used against bind thrusts. It consists of not offering resistance to the bind, but, maintaining blade contact, rotating the point to a line diagonally opposite to that in which the thrust was directed.
fr: cedant, parade ~
de: Zedierungsparade oder Nachgebungsparade
nl: toegevende wering
circular-parry category: parry
en: circular parry or counter-parry Parry that ends in the same line as it began, the point describing a circle, thus deflecting the incoming blade.
fr: contre, parade de
de: Kreisparade oder Kontraparade
nl: kringwering
counter-parry category: parry
en: counter-parry see circular parry.
de: Kontraparade sehe Kreisparade.
diagonal-parry category: parry
en: diagonal parry Parry that travels from the inside low to the outside high (7 to 6) or the reverse, or 8 to 4 or its reverse. Some authors call this a semicircular parry as well.
fr: diagonal, parade ~
de: Diagonalparade
nl: diagonale wering
esquive category: parry
en: displacement, "parry" by ~, dodging Not really a parry, but a removal of the target area, usually combined with a counterattack. See rassemblement, inquartata, passato sotto. The Rules state: Displacing the target and ducking are allowed even if during the action the unarmed hand comes into contact with the strip.
fr: esquive
de: Körperparade, Ausweichbewegung Keine richtige Parade, aber eine Entziehung der Trefffläche, normalerweise zusammen mit einem Gegenangriff. Die Übersetzung Körperparade ist umstritten.
nl: lichaamswering
inquartata category: parry
en: inquartata one of the esquives: a counterattack with opposition in 4th, with the left (for a right-handed fencer) leg extended backwards and about 45 degrees to the right, thus effectively displacing the target.
fr: inquartata
de: Inquartata
nl: inquartata
lateral-parry category: parry
en: lateral parry Parry that travels from the inside to the outside or the reverse, staying high or low, so between 6th and 4th or between 8th and 7th.
fr: lateral, parade ~
de: Lateralparade
nl: laterale wering, dwarswering
nachgebungsparade category: parry
de: Nachgebungsparade sehe Zedierungsparade.
neuvième category: parry
en: parry 9 For foil or epee: unusual parry that protects the back, similar to the sabre septime, sometimes used after a (missed) running attack.
fr: neuvième
de: Parade 9
nl: wering 9
octave category: parry
en: octave Parry that covers the outside low line, hand supinated.
fr: octave
de: Oktav
nl: wering 8
opposing_parry category: parry
en: opposing parry or blocking parry Parry executed by opposing the incoming blade, strong against weak.
fr: opposition, parade en ~
de: Bindungsparade
nl: wering door lijn sluiten
passato_sotto category: parry
en: passato sotto one of the esquives: a counterthrust in low line combined with a kind of reverse lunge and a forward lowering of the body, possibly with the unarmed hand on the floor for extra balance.
fr: botte de nuit
de: Passato sotto
nl: passato sotto
prime category: parry
en: prime Parry that covers the inside low line, hand pronated.
fr: prime
de: Prime
nl: wering 1
quart category: parry
en: quart Parry that covers the inside high line, hand pronated.
fr: quarte
de: Quart
nl: wering 4
quint category: parry
en: quint or fifth For foil or epee: parry that covers the inside high line, hand supinated. For sabre: parry that protects the head, hand on the outside.
fr: quinte
de: Quint
nl: wering 5
rassemblement category: parry
en: reassemblement the withdrawal of the front foot until it touches the left foot, usually combined with a counterattack (in epee). Sometimes this term also used for any closing of the feet, either during an advance or as part of the salute.
fr: rassemblement
de: Rassemblement
nl: rassemblement
second category: parry
en: second Parry that covers the outside low line, hand pronated.
fr: seconde
de: Sekond
nl: wering 2
semicircle-parry category: parry
en: semicircular parry or half circular parry Parry that stays in the inside or outside, but going from the high to the low, or the reverse, so between 6 and 8 or 4 and 7. Some authors include the diagonal parries.
fr: demicercle, parade de ~
de: Halbkreisparade
nl: boogwering
septime category: parry
en: septime For foil or epee: parry that covers the inside low line, hand supinated. For sabre: unusual parry that protects the back, blade pointing down, mainly useful for sabre on horseback.
fr: septime
de: Septim
nl: wering 7
sixte category: parry
en: sixte For foil or epee: parry that covers the outside high line, hand supinated. For sabre: parry that protects the head, hand on the inside.
fr: sixte
de: Sixt
nl: wering 6
tierce category: parry
en: tierce or third Parry that covers the outside high line, hand pronated.
fr: tierce
de: Terz
nl: wering 3
yielding_parry category: parry
en: yielding parry see ceding parry.